Ashkan Hosseini and Ashutosh Chitwadgi elaborate on the increase in malicious pdf files and phishing trends in 2020.
From 2019-20, we noticed a dramatic 1,160% increase in malicious PDF files – from 411,800 malicious files to 5,224,056. PDF files are an enticing phishing vector as they are cross-platform and allow attackers to engage with users, making their schemes more believable as opposed to a text-based email with just a plain link.
To lure users into clicking on embedded links and buttons in phishing PDF files, we have identified the top five schemes used by attackers in 2020 to carry out phishing attacks, which we have grouped as Fake Captcha, Coupon, Play Button, File Sharing and E-commerce.
Palo Alto Networks customers are protected against attacks from phishing documents through various services, such as Cortex XDR, AutoFocus and Next-Generation Firewalls with security subscriptions including WildFire, Threat Prevention, URL Filtering and DNS Security.
To analyze the trends that we observed in 2020, we leveraged the data collected from the Palo Alto Networks WildFire platform. We collected a subset of phishing PDF samples throughout 2020 on a weekly basis. We then employed various heuristic-based processing and manual analysis to identify top themes in the collected dataset. Once these were identified, we created Yara rules that matched the files in each bucket, and applied the Yara rules across all the malicious PDF files that we observed through WildFire.
In 2020, we observed more than 5 million malicious PDF files. The largest number of malicious PDF files that we observed through WildFire belonged to the fake “CAPTCHA” category. In the following sections, we will go over each scheme in detail. We do not discuss the ones that fall into the “Other” category, as they include too much variation and do not demonstrate a common theme.
Usage of Traffic Redirection
After studying different malicious PDF campaigns, we found a common technique that was used among the majority of them: usage of traffic redirection.
Before we review the different PDF phishing campaigns, we will discuss the importance of traffic redirection in malicious and phishing PDF files. The links embedded in phishing PDF files often take the user to a gating website, from where they are either redirected to a malicious website, or to several of them in a sequential manner. Instead of embedding a final phishing website – which can be subject to frequent takedowns – the attacker can extend the shelf life of the phishing PDF lure and also evade detection. Additionally, the final objective of the lure can be changed as needed (e.g. the attacker could choose to change the final website from a credential stealing site to a credit card fraud site). Not specific to PDF files, the technique of traffic redirection for malware-based websites is heavily discussed in “Analysis of Redirection Caused by Web-based Malware” by Takata et al.
Phishing Trends With PDF Files
We identified the top five phishing schemes from our dataset and will break them down in the order of their distribution. It is important to keep in mind that phishing PDF files often act as a secondary step and work in conjunction with their carrier (e.g., an email or a web post that contains them).
1. Fake CAPTCHA
Fake CAPTCHA PDF files, as the name suggests, demands that users verify themselves through a fake CAPTCHA. CAPTCHAs are challenge-response tests that help determine whether or not a user is human. However, the phishing PDF files we observed do not use a real CAPTCHA, but instead an embedded image of a CAPTCHA test. As soon as users try to “verify” themselves by clicking on the continue button, they are taken to an attacker-controlled website. A detailed analysis of the full attack chain for these files is included in the section Fake CAPTCHA Analysis.
The second category that we identified were phishing PDF files that were coupon-themed and often used a logo of a prominent oil company. A considerable amount of these files were in Russian with notes such as “ПОЛУЧИТЬ 50% СКИДКУ” and “ЖМИТЕ НА КАРТИНКУ” which translate to “get 50% discount” and “click on picture” respectively.
Similar to other campaigns we observed, these phishing files also leveraged traffic redirection for reasons mentioned previously. Upon analyzing several of them, we found out that they use two traffic redirectors.
The gating website took us to another website (track[.]backtoblack.xyz), which was a redirector itself. Eventually, we were routed to an adult dating website through a GET request with some parameters filled such as click_id, which can be used for monetization. All these redirections happened through HTTP 302 response messages. Our research showed that the offer_id parameter of backtoblack[.]xyz controls what website the user lands on at the end.
3. Static Image With a Play Button
These phishing files do not necessarily carry a specific message, as they are mostly static images with a picture of a play button ingrained in them. Although we observed several categories of images, a significant portion of them either used nudity or followed specific monetary themes such as Bitcoin, stock charts and the like to lure users into clicking the play button.
Upon clicking the play button, we were again, as expected, redirected to another website. In the majority of our tests, we were redirected to https://gerl-s[.]online/?s1=ptt1. From the domain name, one could assume the website is also within the realm of online dating. However, at the time of this writing, this website had been taken down. Unlike the previous campaign, there was only one redirector involved, and we noticed that all the redirectors had the format of: 6-digit-alphanumeric-unique-id[dot]sed followed by a main domain as listed below.
4. File Sharing
This category of phishing PDF files utilizes popular online file sharing services to grab the user’s attention. They often inform the user that someone has shared a document with them. However, due to reasons which can vary from one PDF file to another, the user cannot see the content and apparently needs to click on an embedded button or a link. As the number of cloud-based file sharing services increases, it would not be surprising to see this theme surge and continue to be among the most popular approaches.
Clicking on the “Access Document” button took us to a login page with an Atlassian logo. We were given two options to use for signing in: Microsoft email or other email services.
Atlassian Stack is geared towards enterprises, so we assume that this campaign was targeting enterprise users. Each of those links were designed to look like a legitimate email sign-on page. For instance, “Continue with Microsoft” took us to a page that looked somewhat similar to what one would encounter upon entering the legitimate https://login.live.com.
After we entered a fake email address, we proceeded to another page that asked us to enter our password.
We observed that the stolen credentials were sent on the attacker’s server through the parameters in a GET request.
After entering the test credentials, we were taken back to the first login page. We would like to note that, at the time that we visited this website, it was already flagged as phishing by major browsers such as Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. However, we clicked through the warning page to investigate further.
Incorporating e-commerce themes into phishing emails and documents is not a new trend. However, we observed an upward trend in the number of fraudulent PDF files that used common e-commerce brands to trick users into clicking on embedded links.
We covered the most common PDF-based phishing campaigns that we saw in 2020 along with their distribution. Data from recent years demonstrates that the amount of phishing attacks continues to increase and social engineering is the main vector for attackers to take advantage of users. Prior research has shown that large-scale phishing can have a click-through rate of up to 8%. Thus, it is important to verify and double check the files you receive unexpectedly, even if they are from an entity that you know and trust. For example, why was your account locked out of nowhere, or why did someone share a file with you when you least expected it?
Palo Alto Networks customers are protected against attacks from such phishing documents through various services:
• Cortex XDR (protects against phishing document delivery and execution).
• Next-Generation Firewalls with security subscriptions including WildFire and Threat Prevention (protects against phishing document delivery), URL Filtering (protects against redirectors and final phishing URLs) and DNS Security (protects against redirectors and final phishing domains).
• AutoFocus users can track some of these PDF phishing campaigns under the Autofocus tag GenericPhishingDocs.